FORUM FOCUS 1602 - page 6

6 |
CONSERVATION INACTION
February2016 IssueNo. 5
L
WF has been supporting
Water Resource Users
Associations (WRUAs)
for over 10 years with the aim
of building the capacity of
local communities so that they
can fully participate in water
resource
management.
The
Water Act (2002) provides for
the establishment of WRUAs as
a key platform for water users
and stakeholders to engage and
participate in the management of
water resources within their sub
catchment. However, this has not
always been the case. It was in
1974 that a fully-fledgedMinistry
in charge of Water Development
affairs was created. One of the
Ministry’s first action point was to
take over the management of not
only Government operated water
schemes, but also self-help and
CountyCouncil operated schemes.
This decision was marked with
challenges including;
• lack of effective control
over its schemes,
• rapid and effective
responses to operations
andmaintenance
requirements,
• reduced level of
consumer participation
and responsibility,
• low levels of equity in
the social distribution of
schemewater,
• financial sustainability.
The ministry acknowledged
thesechallengesandcommissioned
2studiesin1983.The
WaterStudy
argued that the ministry should
stay away from operations and
maintenance responsibility while
the
OperationsandMaintenance
Study
recommended this function
should be decentralised. The
two reports also called for water
sector reforms to address the
challenges. In 1992, the ministry
of Water Development released
two important documents that
guided the sector up to the end
of the decade. First to be tabled
was the
delineation study
that
defined the roles, functions and
responsibilitiesofvariousactors in
thesector, inparticular theministry
and National Water Conservation
and Pipeline Corporation. Second
was
The NationalWaterMaster
Plan
which set out long termplans
for themuchneeded reforms in the
management and development of
the sector.
Between 1995 and 1999,
the ministry was involved in a
policy development process for
the sector.
National Policy on
Water Resources Management
and Development
was published
on Session Paper No.1 of 1999,
and would become the blue print
guiding the legal, administrative
and investment reforms in the
sector. The reforms would be
driven by the Water Policy 1999,
theWaterAct 2002, thenewWater
Dedicatedenforcement of water reforms
necessary forpropermanagement of resources
WaterAppeal
Board
WAB
Water Services
Trust Fund
WSTF
MWI
Water
Resources
Management
Authority
WRMA (HQ)
Water
Services
Regulatory
Board
WSRB
Catchment
Area
Advisory
Committees
CAACs
WRMA
Regional
Offices
Water
Services
Boards
WSBs
WaterResources
UserAssociations
WRUAs
Water Services
Providers
WSPs
Consumers andUsers
Regulation andPlanning
Services
Provision
Consump-
tion and
Use
Local Level
Regional
Level
National Level
WaterResourcesManagement
Policy
Formulation
Water andSewerage Service
NationalWaterConservation
andPipelineCorporation
Sector institutions as illustrated in
thefigure below.
The policy changes resulted
in:
separation of functions
as illustrated in the figure
above;
decentralisation
from
government delegating functions
to decentralised institutions and
operational levels;
stakeholder’s
participation
with
greater
involvement of water users and
stakeholders in decision making
and water resource management
through WRUAs and Catchment
AreaAdvisoryCommittees;
There is consideration of
water as social and economic
good through commercialisation
of water services; user and
polluter payments; and systems
of protecting less advantaged
members of the society.
The new constitution has
mandatedtheNationalGovernment
with the role of Water Resource
management and regulation while
County governments with soil
and water conservation, water
and sanitation services. The
Constitution has placed greater
demands and responsibility on
National and County government
in the provision of clean and safe
water inadequatequantities.Many
Counties, including Laikipia
are benefitting from introduced
mandates, however there are still
strides to bemade as communities
still do not have access to water
resources despite livingwithin the
catchment areas.
Currently, the Water Act Bill
(2014) has been set up to align the
current water sector institutions
in order to fit the requirements
of the New Constitution. Only
through thededicatedenforcement
of these reforms can WRUAs,
and other invested stakeholders,
be successful in water resource
management.
MidEwasoRiver
(Above) Thenew institutionset upunderwater sector reforms -
Source:WRUADevelopment cyclevolume3
1,2,3,4,5 7,8
Powered by FlippingBook